VALENTIN DE BOULOGNE

http://www.wga.hu/art/v/valentin/driving.jpg

Valentin de Boulogne, Christ Driving the Money Changers out of the Temple.jpg

(The history of this painting has been traced back as far as 1666, when…..).

Journal de Montréal, VENDREDI 23 SEPTEMBRE 2016 20H085 expos à voir pour la rentrée.

VALENTIN DE BOULOGNE BEYOND ­CARAVAGGIO, AU METROPOLITAN­MUSEUM OF ART    Du 7 octobre au 16 janvier

 

Valentin de Boulogne, dit le Valentin (1591-1632), de son vrai nom Jean Valentin, est un peintre français, un des plus talentueux et des plus illustres représentants du courant des caravagesques.

Jean Valentin est le fils d’un peintre verrier dont la famille était originaire de Coulommiers, depuis 1489. Le nom de famille fait référence à la ville de Boulogne-sur-Mer, au xviiie siècle il est identifié sous le nom de Moïse (ou Moyse) Valentin, ainsi que Valentin de Coulommier. Il existe une confusion sur la date de naissance, dans l’acte de décès il est mentionné être mort à l’âge de 38 ans mais son acte de baptême a disparu.

Il est présumé que Valentin s’est formé à la peinture dans l’atelier de son père avant de se rendre à Paris ou Fontainebleau et suivit l’enseignement de Simon Vouet, qu’il admirait et dont il s’inspira. Il partit ensuite pour l’Italie.

La première trace de la présence de Valentin en Italie est mentionnée dans le stati d’anime de 1620, alors qu’il vit dans la paroisse de Santa Maria del Popolo. Avant cette date on ne peut que spéculer sur ses déplacements et ses activités.

Tout en étudiant en Italie, Valentin fut sous l’influence du Caravage et de Bartolomeo Manfredi. Peintre de scènes de genre et de tableau religieux, il fera sa carrière essentiellement à Rome.

Courtesy of wikipedia
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentin_de_Boulogne?veaction=edit

Le caravagisme,

ou école caravagesque, est un courant pictural de la première moitié du xviie siècle.

Apparu à la suite du travail du Caravage à la fin du xvie siècle, le caravagisme est parfois assimilé à une forme de baroque romain face au classicisme des Carrache. Cette idée est cependant à nuancer en raison des nombreuses similitudes qui rapprochent ces deux écoles romaine et bolonaise. Ce courant ne doit pas être décrit comme un groupe ou comme une école, car il ne constituait pas un mouvement structuré, mais tout au plus une imitation, une influence de l’Italie. Cette évolution intellectuelle se situe à mi-chemin entre l’opposition à la rhétorique classique des Académies d’une part, et le brillant enthousiasme illusionniste du baroque d’autre part.

Caractérisé par la prédominance de scènes aux puissants contrastes de lumière et d’ombre transcendées par la maîtrise virtuose du clair-obscur, il se constitue autour du style du Caravage et de ses plus proches suiveurs, tel Bartolomeo Manfredi. L’école caravagesque d’Utrecht constitue, quant à elle, un groupe séparé

Courtesy of wikipedia
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caravagisme

Œuvres

 

 

Valentin de Boulogne

(before 3 January 1591 – 19 August 1632), sometimes referred to as Le Valentin, was a French painter in the tenebrist style.

Valentin was born in Coulommiers, France, where he was baptised in the parish of Saint-Denys on 3 January 1591, making 1590 his likely year of birth. The family name, also spelled Boullogne and Boulongne, appears to originate from Boulogne-sur-Mer, a city in northern France in the colony of Pas-de-Calais, though the family had dwelt at Coulommiers since at least 1489. His father, also named Valentin, and his uncle Jean were both painters.

It can be presumed that Valentin would have first started painting in his father’s studio prior to moving to Paris or Fontainebleau, and before leaving for Italy. The first specific mention of Valentin’s being in Italy is in the stati d’anime for 1620, when he was living in the parish of Santa Maria del Popolo. Prior to that date his whereabouts and activities are unknown.

While studying in Italy under Simon Vouet, Valentin was under the influence of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio and Bartolomeo Manfredi.

Caravaggio used a “bold, naturalistic style, which emphasized the common humanity of the apostles and martyrs, flattered the aspirations of the Counter-Reformation Church, while his vivid chiaroscuro enhanced both three-dimensionality and drama, as well as evoking the mystery of the faith.” Caravaggio “followed a militantly realist agenda, rejecting both Mannerism and the classicizing naturalism” and “in the first 30 years of the 17th century his naturalistic ambitions and revolutionary artistic procedures attracted a large following from all over Europe.

Manfredi, also an Italian painter, was known throughout Italy and beyond as Caravaggio’s closest follower. In the dramatically lit canvases of his later period Manfredi adopted a common theme from Caravaggio—the tavern scene featuring ordinary people, even religious subjects, whose figures are depicted close to the surface of the picture to involve the viewer in the action.

While Caravaggio and Manfredi may have influenced the style and themes that would become common in Valentin’s work, Valentin would study under Simon Vouet, a Frenchman. In his time, Vouet was considered a leading French painter. Vouet’s earliest work show the influence of Caravaggio, and use dramatic contrasts of light with a restricted palette of blacks, browns whites.

Valentin had success with a type of composition invented by Caravaggio in which fortune tellers, drinkers, or gamblers are grouped around a table. Valentin himself was fond of carousing and fine wine; it is thought that he died from a chill caught after bathing in a fountain following an evening of smoking and drinking.[citation needed] His surviving body of work is made up of around seventy-five paintings. Valentin’s genius shows in the subtleness of psychological expression and interplay among his characters, as well as in the refinement and finesse of his painting technique.

Valentin’s painting Fortune Teller with Soldiers depicts a group of young soldiers, one of whom is mesmerized by the fortune teller who is reading his palm. Behind the gypsy a shadowy figure looks at the viewer with his finger to his lips in a conspiratorial gesture as he steals the fortune teller’s purse from her pocket. A small child is seen returning the favor by picking his pockets. While one person’s fortune is told, another’s is being stolen; and one thief falls victim to another.

Courtesy of wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valentin_de_Boulogne
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